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Wireless Info-Communication and Navigation
Services in Exhibition Shows
Adamantia G. Pateli
ELTRUN: The E-Business Center
Athens University of Economics and
47A Evelpidon Street, 11362,
Tel: +3-210 8203663, Fax: +3-210
Diomidis D. Spinellis
ELTRUN: The E-Business Center
Athens University of Economics and
47A Evelpidon Street, 11362,
Tel: +3-210 8203682, Fax: +3-210
8203685, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
George M. Giaglis
ELTRUN: The E-Business Center
Athens University of Economics and
47A Evelpidon Street, 11362,
Tel: +3-210 8203658, Fax: +3-210
8203685, E-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: wireless networks, positioning, business models
accumulate vast quantities of information and their success relies in the
quantity and quality of interaction of the involved parties: exhibitors,
visitors and organizers. The more effective the interaction between end
parties, the more successful the exhibition. The application of advanced ICT
applications in the exhibition industry has always been a major opportunity for
leveraging the value proposition of exhibition-related services. More
specifically, as the telecommunication technology evolves, unexpected
possibilities arise for such information and communication rich environments
and quite interesting applications, from both the technology and the business
side, appear. This case study concerns extended discussion about an innovative
wireless system, named as Wireless Exhibition Guide. The wireless system, which
has been the primary research and development result of a European project
funded under the IST programme, employs a set of integrated software
components, mobile terminals, wireless networks and indoor location positioning
technologies to introduce advanced information, communication and navigation
services for a typical European exhibition environment. The discussion concerns
several perspectives on the development and exploitation of the Wireless
Exhibition Guide, such as applied technology (sub-systems and infrastructure),
provided services, value chain analysis, candidate business models, and
regulatory framework with which it complies.
the advances in wireless, mobile and positioning technologies, and the demand
for distribution of targeted content in highly interactive and information-rich
environments, mEXPRESS (mobile
in-EXhibition PRovision of Electronic Support Services) – an EU funded
project – has addressed the challenge of (Mathes et al., 2002):
“… exploiting the technological opportunities arising from evolution in the areas of wireless networks and indoor positioning technologies to support the professionals and customers in the exhibition industry in a context-aware manner”.
Current business practices in the exhibition
industry limit the interaction between the three principal actors (exhibition
organisers, exhibitors and visitors) to the actual visit. The exhibition
organiser contacts and invites the exhibitors in the respective exhibition. The
visitors go to the exhibition and interact with the exhibitors at their stands,
where they perform their promoting activities. The exhibition organisers also
interact with the users as part of the facilitation and feedback process for
organizing the exhibition. Thus, most of the pre-visit and post-visit
interactions are fragmented and isolated, while all interactions are limited to
synchronous request-response mode.
attempt to provide a solution to the above problem, the project has developed a
mediation platform, namely a Wireless Exhibition Guide, which aimed at: a) enhancing visitors’ experience in terms of interaction and
functionality in an information-rich environment such as an exhibition show; b)
improving business communications and promotions within the exhibition; c)
extending promotional effectiveness after the exhibition, and; d) assisting and
supporting exhibition management by offering real-time location information of
people inside the exhibition area.
Exhibition Guide has been the result of an inter-firm collaboration in an
R&D network, including a group of partners that have contributed towards both the development
and the exploitation of the Wireless Exhibition Guide. The technology partners
include two Application Service Providers (INTRACOM, POULIADIS), a device manufacturer (L.M.
Ericsson A/S), a mobile network operator (ELISA) and a positioning technology
provider (SSF). All these partners have collaborated in an R&D network to
combine their technical experience, and thus install the network
infrastructure, develop the wireless application’s functional components, and
provide positioning technologies, such as indoor GPS (SSF) and Bluetooth (L.M.
Ericsson A/S). The two business users of the consortium, which constitute
dominant exhibition organisers in the
Finnish and Greek market, the Finnish Fair Corporation, organiser and hall
owner of the Messukeskus fair centre, and ROTA, organiser and owner of the Expo
Athens centre, have provided their insight on how the exhibition
industry operates as well as the needs and requirements of the targeted user
groups. Moreover, they have provided access to their installations for testing
and evaluating the Wireless Exhibition Guide. Finally, the research partners
(RC-AUEB and HUT) have brought their technical know-how and
business background, but also have provided their experience in international
dissemination activities to promote the
Wireless Exhibition Guide in both the research and business (ICT and
The Wireless Exhibition Guide prototype has
been developed to serve the information, communication and navigation needs and
requirements raised for the three stakeholders (visitors, exhibitors,
organizers) in an exhibition environment. Specifically, the Wireless Exhibition
Guide service portfolio includes the following service categories:
Information Services. They include delivery of
information for visitors regarding the exhibition show, its organizers,
parallel events, exhibitors’ profile and product/service catalogue, as well as
detailed information on specific exhibits that they bookmark. Moreover, organizers
are provided with information on visitors as well as with statistics regarding
the visitors’ volume, traffic and behavior within the exhibition centre (e.g.
which stands they visited, how much time they spent there, etc.). Under the
organizers’ consent, exhibitors may be given restricted access to such
Navigation Services. They include real-time
delivery of a navigation map depicting the visitor’s location on a
digital exhibition map and provision of routing advice for reaching a
user-defined point within the exhibition centre (e.g. restaurant, presentations
room, exit, or a stand).
Communication Services. They include delivery of
real-time messages between visitors (belonging to a group), as well as
targeted messages sent by organizers and exhibitors to clusters
of visitors (e.g. professionals, students, technology-aware, etc.).
The following table lists
in more detail the services offered by the Wireless Exhibition Guide to each
targeted user group, as they were defined through a user requirements capturing
and analysis process (Fouskas
et al., 2002).
Online and Onsite Registration
Personalized and Location-aware
Exchange of “virtual business
cards” with Exhibitors
“Bookmark” stands and exhibits for
receiving more information
Interaction within a user group
Receiving Targeted Messages
(Offers, Announcements) from Exhibitors and Organisers
Message Board for communication
with other visitors
Online Content Management
Exchange of “virtual business
cards” with visitors
Real-time information and history
statistics on visitor behavior
Promotion of their exhibits via
Notifications to organizers in
Information on profile and
preferences of visitors
Online Content Management of
information (profile, exhibition info)
Common and Targeted Announcements
to Exhibitors and Visitors
Real-time information on visitors
History statistics on visitor
flows and behavior
Online feedback from visitors
Table 1. Wireless Exhibition Services per User
section presents a representative application scenario regarding the use of the Wireless Exhibition Guide by a visitor for
wandering through an exhibition show.
The visitor enters the exhibition centre and
passes through the reception. The exhibition organisers ask for his invitation
and the visitor informs them about his online pre-registration. The
exhibition secretariat crosschecks the visitors’ data with the computer. After verification, the secretariat
asks the visitor if he wishes to get a printed copy of the catalogue and a
nametag or he prefers to use the Wireless
Exhibition Guide (if he
is aware of the application). If he is not aware, the organisers inform him and
then provide him with an access device. While he is about
to enter the exhibition hall, he meets a colleague who is about to register
onsite. The former
visitor, who is assigned a leader and moderator of a group comprising of the
company’s employees, is inviting the latter visitor to become member of the
group. After that, the colleague gets his device as well,
and they go on their different ways as they intend to visit different stands.
Before splitting, they both ask to view on their devices a personalized and
location aware navigation plan.
Since our visitor wants to locate specific products he is using his device in order to locate on the map stands with the specific products (i.e. software products). After locating those stands on the navigation plan, he is taking the routing advice of his device to get there. As he approaches the stand of interest to him, he gets alerts for offerings based on his profile as well as targeted promotional spots of certain exhibits from the exhibitors. While wandering through the stands, the visitor gets recommendations for specific events as well as common announcements (i.e. the exhibition is about to close or the license plates of a car that is obstructing the parking area). Some of the events seem interesting to him but are taking place later in the day so he decides to go on. He is visiting 3 or 4 other stands that are in his list and he follows the exact same procedure with the previous ones.
After being in the exhibition for 3 hours, he decides to take a break for a snack or coffee so he is moving towards the closest restaurant or rest area by using his navigation plan and routing advice on his device. On his way to the restaurant, he decides to meet with his colleague so he is using the system to track him since they both belong to the same user group. When he manages to position his colleague, he sends a real-time message asking him to meet in five minutes in the restaurant area. Before sitting in the restaurant, they get connected to the nearest kiosk in order to get information on their visit trail and movements up to this moment. Before leaving the exhibition centre, the visitor can get links to useful information for transportation means, traffic and other matters.
exhibition, while being at home or in the office, the visitor gets connected to
the system and downloads the material that he requested through bookmarks, as
well as additional promotion material sent either by organisers or exhibitors. Furthermore, replying to the organisers’ request, he is using the
system to send feedback by giving his response to an online questionnaire.
screenshots of indicative Wireless Exhibition Guide services, which were
activated in the above scenario, are presented.
Screen 1. The PDA Visitor menu
Screen 2. Real-time
Screen 4. Targeted
components of the Wireless Exhibition Guide technical architecture are the
Application Server. This is the core component of the wireless system. Its main functionality includes:
o Receiving and handling user requests
regarding bookmarking operations.
o User authentication and provision of
a privilege-based system access.
o Adaptation of the output format based on the terminal device capabilities.
o Monitoring of mobile terminal locations, receiving data from the GPS receivers that are adjusted on mobile terminals (PDAs/Mobile Phones).
o Provision of notifications and statistics.
o Provision of user navigation route in the exhibition and relevant personalized recommendations.
o Content management concerning
content submission and content filtering in order to be adjusted to several
access devices (PDAs, WAP phones, PCs).
WLAN/ Bluetooth cells. The two wireless technologies have been employed to provide wireless access to
visitors, exhibitors and exhibitor organisers within the exhibition boundaries.
Both technologies may used to provide interaction between the users and the
Wireless Exhibition Guide system, enabling thus bookmarking requests, business
cards exchanges, receiving of location relative multimedia content, etc.
Furthermore, the use of Bluetooth technology for
location tracking has been investigated but not tested due to endogenous
inefficiencies of the technology at the time of the Wireless Exhibition Guide’s
Indoor GPS system. Taking into consideration the high
accuracy of the GPS solution in the outdoor environment as well as the
limitations of current indoor positioning technologies (Giaglis et al., 2002),
the R&D network has initially opted for using and testing an innovative
indoor GPS solution which was provided by SSF. The main components of the
provided solution are:
o a number of ground transmitters,
pseudolites (pseudo-satellites PS) that emulate the signal structure of GPS
satellites and replace the GPS in the exhibition environment.
o a number of reference receivers that
are used for signal integrity provision and synchronization of the pseudolites
o the Master Control Station (MCS)
comprising of one or more computers running the control software for providing
monitoring, configuration and control of the whole system.
o The receiver that has been used is a
slightly modified GPS receiver which is capable of receiving the signal
transmitted by the pseudolites.
Wireless Terminals. Several types of terminal devices have been used to provide access to wireless exhibition
o PDAs. PDAs have been used
by visitors to make bookmark requests and receive multimedia content,
notifications and routing information relative to their location. They have also been used by the exhibition organisers to receive notifications. These terminals are WLAN/ Bluetooth-enabled and include GPS receivers.
PC and laptops have been used by visitors for before-exhibition visit preparation and
after-exhibition office review. They have also been
used by exhibitors and exhibition organisers to receive statistics,
notifications and content submission.
following figure provides an overview of the technical architecture:
Figure 1. Technical Architecture of the Wireless Exhibition Guide
Analysis has been used in multiple business and research cases as a method for acquiring knowledge and deep
understanding of an industry’s structure and dynamics (Porter, 1980). The linear form of value chain, from supplier
to manufacturer to retailer and then to customer, is not appropriate for
depicting the complex structure of the mobile business environment including a
large number of players and their multi-lateral interactions. In
telecommunications industry, value chain is increasingly evolving into a value
network consisting of a series of inter-wined value chains with multiple entry
and exit points (Li and Whalley, 2002). In this case, the concept of value
chain has been used to identify the primary segments, as well as the principal
actors, roles and competences, in the wireless exhibition market. However, in a
later stage, when discussing the scenarios for alternative business
configurations, the actors’ relationships and the way in which value is created
and distributed are described though a value network illustration.
The following paragraphs divide the market of wireless exhibition
services into its primary segments (sub-networks) for facilitating the
discussion on key mobile players, their roles, their competences and their
interests in partnership with other players of the same or different
sub-network. Hereinafter, we have distinguished four main segments in the value system of wireless
exhibition services. These are: 1) Technology (Software and Hardware) Provider,
2) Wireless Infrastructure Operator, 3) Wireless Application Service Provider,
4) Exhibition Content Provider, and 5) End Users.
Provider. This segment includes the actors that have developed and
thus can provide the Wireless Exhibition Guide software. Their primary
strengths include ownership of the Wireless Exhibition Guide as well as
expertise in developing, customizing, and integrating the application to the
special requirements of their business customer. In this segment, we also
enclose actors that provide the hardware (Servers, PDAs, etc.) required for the
operation of the Wireless Exhibition Guide. In this case, possible actors include the
mEXPRESS consortium, the provider of PDA devices (with the required
specifications), and the provider of the servers and PCs used by the business
and individual users in the exhibition place.
Infrastructure Operator. This is the core segment of the wireless
application market. Actors that are positioned in this segment provide the required network
infrastructure (e.g. WLAN access points) and are responsible for its
administration and operation in support of the wireless application. In this
case, possible actors include a third party, usually a technology or exhibition
service provider, that has already expertise of the field from either the
technical or the service point of view, as well as the IT subsidiary or
department or staff of Hall Owner in which the infrastructure is installed.
Content Provider. This component includes actors designing, producing, packaging, delivering
and supporting the exhibition content and services, from which customer value
is derived. The primary actors in the exhibition content area are organisers,
who possess data on the exhibition show history as well as on the sector
concerned, and exhibitors, who provide information on their company’s profile
as well as their product catalogue or service portfolio.
Application Service Provider. This is the segment responsible for the
operation of the Wireless Exhibition Guide software and the
provision of services to its users. Their primary competence combines abilities
configuration and support, and experience of service provisioning to the
business customers of this market. Possible actors belonging to this segment of
the value chain include the IT department (or subsidiary) of exhibition hall
owners, technology firms providing IT/ICT solutions for the exhibition
industry, and exhibition organisers.
5. End Users. This
segment includes the business and individual customers of the wireless
exhibition services. The
three primary user groups identified in this case are: a) organisers, b)
exhibitors, and c) visitors (professionals or individuals).
Taking into consideration the number of alternative actors in each
segment as well as the n-n relationships that are usually developed through
network formation between different players and segments in the mobile industry
(Maitland et al., 2003), a wide range of alternative business models can be
identified and designed. Based on analysis of the (technology, market,
regulatory) environment of the Finnish and Greek markets, and discussions with
the two exhibition partners of the R&D network, a scenario-based approach
(Panis et al., 2002) has been followed for identifying three alternative
business configurations and value creation mechanisms for future exploitation
of the Wireless Exhibition Guide (mEXPRESS D6.1, 2004). The following figure
depicts the structure and the players included in the value chain of each
scenario. As it is illustrated, the three scenarios are primarily differentiated
in terms of actors that take on the roles of Wireless Infrastructure Operator
and Wireless Application Service Provider.
Figure 2. Value Chains of the 3 Scenarios
brief description of each scenario, the concerned business model has been
defined in terms of involved players and their competences, exchanged value,
and revenue model (mEXPRESS D6.1, 2004).
Regarding the revenue model, which constitutes prime determinant of a business
model’s viability, we have identified a list of possible revenue streams,
derived from the direct users. The various revenue models that are discussed in
each scenario constitute alternative ways of distributing these revenue
streams, as well as revenue streams that accrue from firm’s collaboration (e.g.
commission), among the involved parties. The possible customer-generated
revenue streams include:
Rental fee paid by organisers for renting the Wireless Exhibition Guide software,
fee over the booth rent paid by exhibitors,
from selling syndicated and customised exhibition content (e.g. statistical
reports) to organisers and exhibitors,
paid by exhibitors for placing an advertisement in the Wireless Exhibition
could possibly be generated from visitors by charging them for using the
Wireless Exhibition Guide as a premium service. However, as the business users
of the projects have contended, it is not business-wise to charge for a service
that users are not aware of and are possibly afraid of because of the
technologies that it involves. As a result, their intention for employing the
Wireless Exhibition Guide to their shows is not offering that as a premium
charged service but as value-added service, which means that this is offered
free. Thus, visitors are not included hereinafter as possible revenue sources
for the business models that are discussed.
SCENARIO A: Partnership of Technology/ Service
Provider(s) with Hall Owner
This scenario concerns a partnership agreement
contracted between a Technology and/ or Service Provider with an Exhibition
Hall Owner for collaborating in order to provide the wireless exhibition
services. The concerned entities make an alliance, of either permanent or
semi-permanent nature based on their strategic goals, which includes a
distribution of roles based on their primary competence. Thus, the Technology
Provider is responsible for installing and operating the Wireless Exhibition
Guide infrastructure within the exhibition hall taking the role of Wireless Infrastructure
Operator. The Service Provider, who can be either the same or a different
entity from the Technology provider, is assigned the role of Wireless
Exhibition Guide software administrator and operator, takes exhibition content
from organisers and exhibitors, and is responsible for the reliability and
quality of the Wireless Exhibition Guide services. Hall Owner relies on this
Service Provider for providing the wireless services to the exhibition shows
that are organised by itself or its hosted organiser companies.
The following figure constitutes an illustration of
the value network of Scenario A.
Figure 3. Value Network of Scenario A
business model is based on a revenue-sharing agreement between the Wireless
Service Provider with the other parties that provide significant value, such as
the Hall Owner and the ICT firm. The direct receiver of this revenue can either
be the Wireless Service Provider itself or the organiser, who usually acts as
the interface for any service provided to exhibitors and visitors. In any case,
the major part of the revenue goes to the Wireless Service Provider, who then
pays a commission to the Hall Owner and the ICT firm, as it is specified in
their revenue sharing agreement.
SCENARIO B: Acquisition and ownership of
solution by Exhibition Hall Owner
This scenario concerns the case in which an Exhibition
Centre Owner may wish to take full ownership of operating the software and
providing its services to organisers, exhibitors, and visitors. Hall Owners can
buy the Wireless Exhibition Guide service package from its developer, called
hereinafter as Technology Provider. Then, they get fully responsible for
working both as Wireless Infrastructure Operator, which means that they should
buy and install themselves the required networking and positioning
infrastructures over their premises, and as Wireless Application Service
Provider, meaning that they should be able to take on the administration as
well as the content management of the application for providing the wireless
exhibition services. The only need for collaboration is with organisers and
exhibitors for providing them with the exhibition content that is delivered
through the Wireless Exhibition Guide platform. A basic prerequisite for this
scenario to materialise is that Hall Owners develop internally the required
technical competence for operating the wireless infrastructure and application.
That means that they have the required human resources and skills to support
themselves the provision of the wireless exhibition services. Under this
scenario, Hall Owners are more likely to pursue a competitive advantage from
their ability to assure exclusive use and delivery of wireless services to the
exhibition shows that take place in their premises.
The following figure constitutes an illustration of the value network of Scenario B.
Figure 4. Value Network of Scenario B
scenario, the revenue model is quite simple. The revenue usually comes from the
end users, though the streams described the introductory paragraph of this
section. The primary and only receiver of this revenue is the Exhibition Hall
Owner who provides the services and manages the relationships with the end
users of the system.
SCENARIO C: Contract-based agreement between
Hall Owner and Organiser
Taking into consideration the evolutions of wireless networking evolution
(technology), the trends towards WLAN implementation in public places and
common work areas, accommodation and entertainment places (e.g. cafes, hotels,
airports, exhibition centres) as well as the European Commission Recommendation
[COM(2003) 65] to promote public wireless broadband services in Europe, WLAN
infrastructure is expected within the next few years to constitute standard
equipment for a great number of European exhibition centres. In terms of value
chain configuration, that means that it is possible to separate, and thus
assign to different entities, the roles of Wireless Infrastructure Operator and
Wireless Application Service Provider. As owner of the establishments in which
exhibition shows take place, Hall Owner is considered responsible for operating
the installed wireless and positioning infrastructure. Of course, the
technology provider that has installed the infrastructure or even a technology
partner to which Hall Owner is tied can as well keep this role. However, the
ownership of wireless infrastructure remains on the hall owner’s side. In the
role of Wireless Application Service Provider, we can then find any organiser
who signs a contract-based agreement with Hall Owner for renting and using the
Wireless Exhibition Guide during the exhibition shows that it organizes within
The following figure constitutes an illustration of the value network of Scenario C.
Figure 5. Value Network of Scenario C
In Scenario C, the revenue model is defined by
the ad-hoc financial terms of the contract that is signed between the Hall
Owner and the Exhibition Organiser. The revenue, which can be generated from fees imposed to exhibitors and
visitors or even from other sources (e.g. sponsorships), is collected by the
Exhibition Organiser, who acts as the Wireless Exhibition Guide’s interface with its users. Depending on the type of agreement that it
has made with the Hall Owner, the Exhibition Organiser may pay either a
commission of its revenue or a standard once-paid fee every time that it uses
the Hall Owner’s wireless networking and positioning infrastructure.
the European Commission proposed five directives to replace the instruments
then in force. These are the Framework Directive (2002/21/EC), the
Authorisation Directive (2002/20/EC), the Access and Interconnection Directive
(2002/19/EC), the Universal Service and Users’ Rights Directive (2002/22/EC),
and the e-Privacy or Location Data Protection Directive (2002/58/EC). In
parallel with this process the Commission adopted a directive on the basis of
Article 86 of the Treaty (Competition Directive), consolidating previous
directives liberalising the provision of services on these markets [COM(2000)
regulation concerns raised from the Wireless Exhibition Guide implementation
and delivery relate to the Location Data Directive (2002/58/EC). This directive particularizes and
complements Data Protection
Directive (1995/46/EC) by including regulations for the processing and protection of two new
types of personal data, that is traffic and location data, as well as for the
provision of value-added services based on such data. Based on the directive
articles, ‘traffic data’ means any data processed for the purpose of the
conveyance of a communication on an electronic communications network or for
the billing thereof. ‘Location data’ means any data processed in an
electronic communications network, indicating the geographic position of the
terminal equipment of a user of a publicly available electronic communications
service. Finally, ‘value added service’ means any service which requires
the processing of traffic data or location data other than traffic data beyond
what is necessary for the transmission of a communication or the billing
2002/58/EC, the Wireless Exhibition Guide processes location data collected after positioning
users (visitors, exhibitor, and organiser’s personnel) in the exhibition area,
anonymously or with the consent of the users to the extent and for the
duration necessary for the provision of the relevant service (mEXPRESS D7.2,
2003). More specifically,
the Wireless Exhibition Guide provides services that make use of location data
such as visitor’s statistics, personalized messages and proposed route within
the exhibition. The type of location data mainly used for such services can be
the position of visitors within the exhibition, the visitor’s trail and other
similar data concerning mainly visitors and exhibitors. The collection and
processing of this data is accomplished accordingly to the provisions of the
European Location Data Directive.
paragraph 1 of Article 9, the above-mentioned location data are processed in an
anonymous way, so that only the system can identify the exact location of its
users. This information is then kept in order to provide the above-discussed
value-added services. None of these value-added services makes apparent a
matching between individuals and the presented location data. Adding to that,
the users of the Wireless Exhibition Guide services are provided with the
possibility to deny the capturing of their location data when registering. Even
if they have provided their consent at the first place, they have anytime the
possibility of refusing the processing of such data by updating their
registration form (mEXPRESS D7.2, 2003). Finally, only the service provider,
and not any exhibitor or even organizer, has the authority of processing the
users’ location data. In doing so, the service provider should be considerate,
so that the amount of location data collected is restricted to what is
necessary for its initially declared purpose.
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Adamantia Pateli holds a BSc Degree in
Informatics from Athens University of Economics and Business (AUEB) in
September 1999, and a Master Degree in Electronic Commerce from University of
Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) in September 2001. She is currently a PhD Candidate at
the Department of Management Science and Technology of the Athens University of Economics and Business in Greece. She also holds a
position as Research Associate at the Mobile/Wireless Research Group hosted
within the ELTRUN research group of the Athens University of Economics and
Business. Adamantia has published about 10 research articles in European and
international conferences, including the European Conference of Information
Systems, the International Conference of the Decision Sciences Institute, and
the Bled Electronic Commerce Conference.
Diomidis Spinellis is an Associate Professor at the Department of
Management Science and Technology at the Athens University of Economics and
Business, Greece. He has written more than 70
technical papers in the areas of software engineering, information
security, and ubiquitous computing. His
book “Code Reading: The Open Source Perspective” received a “Productivity
Award” from the Software Development Magazine in 2004. He has contributed software to the BSD Unix
distribution, the X Window System, and is the author of a number of open-source
software packages, libraries, and tools.
currently Assistant Professor of eBusiness at the Athens University of
Economics and Business, Greece. He has also held full-time academic posts in
Brunel University (UK) and the University of the Aegean (Greece), while he has
been a visiting professor in universities such as the University of London,
Nottingham Trent University, and Henley Management College. His main teaching
and research interests lie in the areas of eBusiness (emphasising on mobile and
wireless applications and services), technology-enabled business process
redesign, business process modelling and re-engineering, information
management, and information systems evaluation. He has published more than 50
research articles in leading journals and international conferences, including
the Information Systems Journal, the International Journal of Electronic
Commerce, and the International Journal of Information Management. Since 2001,
he is the Director of the Mobile/Wireless Research Group hosted within the
ELTRUN research group of the Athens University of Economics and Business.